Tsdating evaluation

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The topics addressed here—geospatial technology, coastal and island archaeology, and climate change—cover a lot of issues and literature that have been summarized or discussed elsewhere (e.g., [23,24,25]), and so to begin, I want to be clear about the scope of this review.First, I have tried to include examples of a wide range of geospatial technologies.Next, since much of what archaeologists are concerned with lay buried underground, I outline how archaeologists use geophysical survey techniques such as electronic resistivity/conductivity, magnetometry, and ground penetrating radar.Finally, I highlight several special challenges for applying remote sensing in near shore maritime environments.There are of course other consequences of climate change that will impact archaeology, for example drought and increased occurrences of wild fires, but my focus here is on coasts and near shore marine environments.These same environments are also prone to many other threats, specifically, urban development.Here, I review recent efforts to document archaeological sites across the islands of Polynesia using geospatial technology, specifically remote sensing, high-resolution documentation, and the creation of archaeological site geodatabases.I discuss these geospatial technologies in terms of planning for likely future impacts from sea level rise; a problem that will be felt across the region, and based on current evidence, will affect more than 12% of all known sites in New Zealand (Aotearoa).“In coastal regions around the world, we need to accelerate our own efforts to inventory, investigate, and interpret the history of endangered coastal sites …

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In this paper, I primarily discuss the scientific losses due to climate change with the recognition that all of these locations have cultural value to the communities that live there today [28].In New Zealand, the focus was initially on large earthwork sites, hilltop fortifications created by Maori, which is not surprising given that there are over 6000 of these types of sites across the country [29,30].In the 1990s, concern was raised over the property rights involved with photographing these iconic sites, specifically, if local Maori could claim air images as their cultural property, as has been done with rock art [31].There is a pressing need in archaeology to engage in a rapid evaluation of the utility of technology and the results of impact studies to stay ahead of the “rising tide” [1].The suite of geospatial technologies available to archaeologists—including GPS, GIS, remote sensing, and laser scanning—are useful tools for documenting and analyzing evidence and communicating the results of our research [21,22].

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